1.) What was the basic message of the utopian socialists?
The basic ideals of utopian socialists revolved around complete organized control over individuals. They did not believe in free speech, and they wanted to abolish private property; it was also believed that inequality was complete and utter injustice. Utopian socialists were in absolute opposition of the free market, and believed that the ideal society had to be planned and organized by an elite few.
2.) What were the characteristics of neoclassicism? Give one example of neoclassicism and show how it embodies at least one of these characteristics.
Some characteristics of neoclassicism are serenity, rationality, proper behavior and mannerisms (morals). It also involved the revival of many past cultural achievements; especially those from classical Greece and Rome. An example of someone who exhibited neoclassicism is Jane Austen; often mistakenly associated with romanticism, she has published multiple works discussing issues regarding relationships, morality, and marriage.
3.) What were the characteristics of Romanticism? Give one example of Romanticism and show how it embodies at least one of these characteristics.
With romanticism, came a great interest in the past and far away places, both literally and figuratively. Artists found great creative liberty during this period, and minds wandered back to the middle ages, to dabble in the origins of folk art, music and literature, and explore the diversity of national customs. During this time period most people broke with their traditional artistic customs and began to find comfort and inspiration in spirituality; they explored “the feeling intellect,” the knowledgeable understanding and breaking down of spirituality and emotion; the reason behind reason. Romanticism can be identified with abundance when exploring architecture, and it fueled a great gothic revival in Germany. This can be found specifically in the new Palace of Westminster, as well as the Cologne Cathedral.