What are some of the characteristic features of (a) Mannerism and (b) the Baroque?
A.) A few characteristic features of the Mannerism art period are how dramatic, elaborate and sophisticated each piece is. Many captured religious and spiritual depictions, some violent, some tear-jerking. A main pull during this period was really getting a reaction from the viewer. This meant going a step deeper than the Renaissance had; artists such as Tintoretto and El Greco found themselves creating images with a newly profound perspective on use of light, shadow, and the connection between space and people.
B.) A few characteristic features of the Baroque art period include intense drama, energy, motion, and increased light use. Again it is observed that gods as well as other spiritual entities and encounters are depicted (sometimes for a more dramatic affect on the viewer). Aside from paintings, many sculptures and other art forms became popular. Figures carved into stone captured exact movement better with bulging muscles and poised perfection. Wrinkles lined marble faces spelling out exact emotion. This was a time of overwhelming detail.
Describe Peter the Great’s program for Russia
Peter the Great’s plan for Russia was to modernize (Westernize) it, and bring in what he thought was the best of information/ideas from each place he had traveled in order to improve Russia. Going against everything he had been taught by his father, Peter the Great discontinued men’s ability to wear beards, long hair. Should a man want to do either he would be heavily taxed for it. Also unlike his father, he encouraged the Western dress. He created a more modernized army (after an embarrassing defeat) by raising existing taxes and creating new ones. Although he was relatively religiously tolerant, he did pursue the persecution of the Old Believers. He also ultimately gains control of the Russian Orthodox Church for the state.
What did Frederick William accomplish?
Frederick William is known greatly for being one of the first to have established a large standing army to defend and extend his lands. Eventually, his standing army amounted to 3% of his entire population, and it continued to grow under his son Frederick I.